Getting started


  1. Ensure you have Python 3.9 or greater installed on your machine.
  2. Consider using a virtual environment.
  3. The preferred way to install the toqito package is via pip.
pip install toqito

Alternatively, to install, you may also run the following command from the top-level package directory.

python install

Installing BLAS/LAPACK

The toqito module makes heavy use of the cvxpy module for solving various convex optimization problems that naturally arise for certain problems in quantum information. The installation instructions for cvxpy may be found on the project’s installation page.

As a dependency for many of the solvers, you will need to ensure you have the BLAS and LAPACK mathematical libraries installed on your machine. If you have numpy working on your machine, it is likely that you already have these libraries on your machine. The cvxpy module provides many different solvers to select from for solving SDPs. We tend to use the SCS solver. Ensure that you have the scs Python module installed and built for your machine.


The pytest module is used for testing. In order to run and pytest, you will need to ensure it is installed on your machine. Consult the pytest website for more information. To run the suite of tests for toqito, run the following command in the root directory of this project:

pytest --cov-report term-missing --cov=toqito tests/


All contributions, bug reports, bug fixes, documentation improvements, enhancements, and ideas are welcome.

A detailed overview on how to contribute can be found in the contributing guide.

Reporting Issues

Please report any issues you encounter via the issue template.


You can cite toqito using the following DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4743211.

If you are using the toqito software package in research work, please include an explicit mention of toqito in your publication. Something along the lines of:

To solve problem “X” we used toqito; a package for studying certain aspects of quantum information.

A BibTeX entry that you can use to cite toqito is provided here:

   author       = {Vincent Russo},
   title        = {toqito: A {P}ython toolkit for quantum information, version 1.0.0},
   howpublished = {\url{}},
   month        = Mar,
   year         = 2021,
   doi          = {10.5281/zenodo.4743211}